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Cocoa solids

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Physical properties:
– Cocoa powder is the dry solids left after extracting cocoa butter from chocolate liquor.
– Cocoa butter makes up 46% to 57% of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its melting properties.
– Cocoa powder, with a small amount of cocoa butter, is bitter in its untreated form.
– Dutch process cocoa is treated with an alkali to reduce acidity.
– Flavanol content in cocoa powder decreases with acid-reducing processes.

Natural cocoa:
– Natural cocoa powder is made through the Broma process.
– It has a light-brown color and an extractable pH of 5.3 to 5.8.
– Natural cocoa is acidic and often paired with baking soda in recipes.
– Baking soda neutralizes the acidity and helps cakes rise.
– Natural cocoa is obtained after removing cocoa fats from chocolate nibs.

Dutch process cocoa:
– Dutch process cocoa is treated with alkalizing agents.
– It has a milder taste compared to natural cocoa.
– Dutched cocoa is used in modern chocolate, ice cream, and baking.
– Alkalization reduces bitterness and improves solubility.
– Alkalizing agents used include potassium carbonate and sodium carbonate.

– Cocoa powder contains 58% carbohydrates, 14% fat, and 20% protein.
– It is rich in minerals like manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium.
– Cocoa powder also provides significant amounts of iron, zinc, and calcium.
– A 100g serving of cocoa powder offers 954kJ (228kcal) of energy.
– It contains caffeine (230mg) and theobromine (2060mg) per 100g.

– Cocoa powder is a rich source of flavonoids, especially flavan-3-ols.
– Flavonoid content varies based on processing methods.
– Dutch processing reduces the flavonoid content significantly.
– Flavonoids are a subset of polyphenols found in cocoa powder.
– The health effects of chocolate are linked to its flavonoid content.

– Cocoa powders may contain cadmium, a toxic heavy metal.
– Cadmium is a probable carcinogen and naturally occurs in cocoa-producing regions.
– The EU has set limits for cadmium in cocoa powder and chocolate.
Canada has established daily cadmium limits for natural health products.
– California requires products with high cadmium levels to bear warning labels.

Cocoa solids (Wikipedia)

Dry cocoa solids are the components of cocoa beans remaining after cocoa butter, the fatty component of the bean, is extracted from chocolate liquor, roasted cocoa beans that have been ground into a liquid state. Cocoa butter is 46% to 57% of the weight of cocoa beans and gives chocolate its characteristic melting properties. Cocoa powder is the powdered form of the dry solids with a small remaining amount of cocoa butter. Untreated cocoa powder is bitter and acidic. Dutch process cocoa has been treated with an alkali to neutralize the acid.

Press cake after extraction of cocoa butter

Cocoa powder contains flavanols, amounts of which are reduced if the cocoa is subjected to acid-reducing alkalization.

Other definitions of cocoa solids include all cocoa ingredients (cocoa mass, cocoa powder and cocoa butter). In this case, cocoa solids without cocoa butter are specified as non-fat cocoa solids.

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