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Tucson, Arizona

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**History and Demographics of Tucson**:
– Tucson was founded as a military fort by the Spanish in 1775 and served as the capital of the Arizona Territory from 1867 to 1877.
– The city’s population has grown significantly, with 542,629 residents in the city in the 2020 census and a metropolitan area population of 1,043,433.
– Tucson has a rich history with Native American, Spanish, and Mexican influences, and it was designated a City of Gastronomy by UNESCO in 2015.
– Major suburbs like Oro Valley, Marana, and Sahuarita contribute to the diverse demographics of Tucson, with Mexican Americans accounting for a significant portion of the population.

**Geography and Climate of Tucson**:
– Tucson is located in Pima County, Arizona, with an elevation of 2,389 feet and surrounded by five mountain ranges.
– The city experiences a hot desert climate with two major seasons: hot summers and mild winters.
– Tucson averages 10.61 inches of precipitation annually, with rare snowfall occurrences.
– The record maximum temperature in Tucson was 117°F, while the record minimum was 6°F.
– Tucson’s land area covers 226.71 square miles, and it is positioned 108 miles southeast of Phoenix.

**Economy and Transportation in Tucson**:
– Tucson’s economy is driven by industries like optical science, aerospace, defense, and tourism, with major employers including the University of Arizona and Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.
– Transportation infrastructure includes Interstate 10 connecting Tucson to Phoenix and Las Cruces, New Mexico, and I-19 running south to Nogales and the U.S.-Mexico border.
– Tucson is part of the Arizona Sun Corridor and has a well-connected road network along with proximity to major airports like Tucson International Airport.

**Cultural and Neighborhood Aspects of Tucson**:
– Tucson, known as the ‘Old Pueblo’ and ‘Optics Valley,’ hosts various cultural events and festivals, reflecting its diverse heritage.
– The city has vibrant arts scenes with galleries and museums, and historic neighborhoods like El Presidio and Barrio Histórico add to its cultural richness.
– Downtown and Central Tucson offer historic attractions, entertainment districts, and landmarks like the University of Arizona, Arizona Stadium, and Reid Park.
– Northern Tucson features upscale boutiques, restaurants, and art galleries, along with communities like Catalina Foothills known for expensive homes and major resorts.

**Recreation and Infrastructure in Tucson**:
– Tucson offers recreational opportunities with attractions like Saguaro National Park East, Reid Park Zoo, and various golf courses and resorts.
– The city has diverse housing options, including master-planned communities in the Northwestern suburbs like Continental Ranch and Dove Mountain.
– Tucson’s climate and seasons make it conducive for outdoor activities, with mild winters and warm summers, attracting residents and tourists alike.
– Infrastructure developments like the University of Arizona campus, Speedway Boulevard, and historic landmarks contribute to the overall appeal and livability of Tucson.

Tucson, Arizona (Wikipedia)

Tucson (/ˈtsɒn/; O'odham: Cuk Ṣon) is a city in and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and is home to the University of Arizona. It is the second-largest city in Arizona behind Phoenix, with a population of 542,629 in the 2020 United States census, while the population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is 1,043,433. The Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area. Both Tucson and Phoenix anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor. The city is 108 miles (174 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi (100 km) north of the United States–Mexico border.

Cuk Ṣon (O'odham)
Clockwise, from the top: Downtown Tucson skyline, Old Main, University of Arizona, St. Augustine Cathedral, Pima County Courthouse
Flag of Tucson
Etymology: from Tohono O'odham Cuk Ṣon '(at the) base of the black hill'
"The Old Pueblo", "Optics Valley", "America's biggest small town"
Interactive map outlining Tucson
Location within Pima County
Location within Pima County
Tucson is located in Arizona
Location within Arizona
Tucson is located in the United States
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 32°13′18″N 110°55′35″W / 32.22167°N 110.92639°W / 32.22167; -110.92639
CountryUnited States
Settledc. 1300 A.D
FoundedAugust 20, 1775
IncorporatedFebruary 7, 1877
Founded byHugo O'Conor
 • TypeCouncil–manager
 • BodyTucson City Council
 • MayorRegina Romero (D)
 • Vice mayorLane Santa Cruz
 • City managerMichael Ortega
 • City council
 • City241.33 sq mi (625.04 km2)
 • Land241.01 sq mi (624.22 km2)
 • Water0.32 sq mi (0.82 km2)
2,389 ft (728 m)
 • City542,629
 • Rank89th in North America
33rd in the United States
2nd in Arizona
 • Density2,251.44/sq mi (869.29/km2)
 • Urban
875,441 (US: 52nd)
 • Urban density2,449.8/sq mi (945.9/km2)
 • Metro
1,043,433 (US: 53rd)
Demonym(s)Tucsonian; Tucsonan
Time zoneUTC-07:00 (MST (no DST))
ZIP Codes
Area code520
FIPS code04-77000
GNIS feature ID43534
1 Urban = 2010 Census

Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, and South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson (some within or overlapping the city limits) include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde, Tortolita, and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metropolitan area include Three Points, Benson to the southeast, Catalina and Oracle to the north, and Green Valley to the south.

Tucson was founded as a military fort by the Spanish when Hugo O'Conor authorized the construction of Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón in 1775. It was included in the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821. The United States acquired a 29,670 square miles (76,840 km2) region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico from Mexico under the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Tucson served as the capital of the Arizona Territory from 1867 to 1877. Tucson was Arizona's largest city by population during the territorial period and early statehood, until it was surpassed by Phoenix by 1920. Nevertheless, its population growth remained strong during the late 20th century. Tucson was the first American city to be designated a "City of Gastronomy" by UNESCO in 2015.

The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón (Spanish pronunciation: [tuɣˈson]), is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon (Uto-Aztecan pronunciation: [tʃʊk ʂɔːn]). Cuk is a stative verb meaning "(be) black, (be) dark". Ṣon is (in this usage) a noun referring to the base or foundation of something. The name is commonly translated into English as "(at the) base of the black [hill]", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak. Tucson is sometimes referred to as the Old Pueblo and Optics Valley, the latter referring to its optical science and telescopes known worldwide.

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