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**Concept 1: Solvation Fundamentals**

– Solvation is distinct from solubility, as it stabilizes solute species in a solution.
– The solvated state involves surrounding solute with solvent molecules.
– Solvation interactions apply to insoluble materials like ion-exchange resin.
– Solvation is a kinetic process, while solubility is a dynamic equilibrium state.
– Dissolution rate is measured in mol/s, while solubility is expressed as concentration.

**Concept 2: Solvent-Solute Interactions**

– Solvation involves hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole interactions, and van der Waals forces.
– Solvent polarity is crucial in solvating solutes.
– Polar solvents like water, ethanol, and acetone can solvate ionic compounds.
– The hydrogen bonding ability of solvents determines solvation.
– Solvatochromism demonstrates how solvents affect solute color and properties.

**Concept 3: Thermodynamics of Solvation**

– Solvation is favored if the Gibbs energy of the solution decreases.
– Solvation involves cavity formation, solute separation, and mixing.
– Enthalpy of solution is the difference in enthalpy of separate systems.
– Solvation energy is calculated as enthalpy minus temperature times entropy change.
– Gases have a negative entropy of solution and are less soluble at higher temperatures.

**Concept 4: Solvation Complexes and Hydration**

– Solvation involves bond formation, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces.
– Solvation of a solute by water is called hydration.
– Solubility depends on the competition between lattice energy and solvation.
– Solvation complexes can be described by coordination number and stability constants.
– Solvation influences solute properties like solubility, reactivity, and color.

**Concept 5: Applications and Implications of Solvation**

– Solvation is essential for chemical reactions to occur and influences the stability of molecules.
– It determines the solubility of substances, impacts the rate of chemical reactions, and plays a crucial role in biological processes.
– Solvation energy is measured experimentally in calorimetry and influences chemical equilibrium.
– Applications include drug solubility and absorption, environmental processes, industrial processes, biological functions, and understanding intermolecular interactions.
– Factors affecting solvation include the nature of the solvent and solute, temperature, pressure, presence of other solutes, and polarizability of molecules.

Solvation (Wikipedia)

Solvation describes the interaction of a solvent with dissolved molecules. Both ionized and uncharged molecules interact strongly with a solvent, and the strength and nature of this interaction influence many properties of the solute, including solubility, reactivity, and color, as well as influencing the properties of the solvent such as its viscosity and density. If the attractive forces between the solvent and solute particles are greater than the attractive forces holding the solute particles together, the solvent particles pull the solute particles apart and surround them. The surrounded solute particles then move away from the solid solute and out into the solution. Ions are surrounded by a concentric shell of solvent. Solvation is the process of reorganizing solvent and solute molecules into solvation complexes and involves bond formation, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. Solvation of a solute by water is called hydration.

A sodium ion solvated by water molecules

Solubility of solid compounds depends on a competition between lattice energy and solvation, including entropy effects related to changes in the solvent structure.

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