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**Medical Uses and Benefits**:
– Niacinamide is the preferred treatment for pellagra due to niacin deficiency.
– Used in acne treatment and for inflammatory skin conditions.
– Increases ceramide biosynthesis and lowers sebum excretion rate.
– Effective for photoprotection, skin cancer prevention, and various skin diseases.
– Included in the WHO model list of essential medicines.

**Chemical Properties and Synthesis**:
– Nicotinamide structure includes a pyridine ring with a primary amide group.
– Crucial in metabolic pathways, incorporated into NAD and NADP.
– Produced from 3-Cyanopyridine through specific chemical reactions.
– Nitrile hydratase catalyzes nicotinamide production, and it can be synthesized enzymatically.

**Industrial Production and Applications**:
Hydrolysis of nicotinonitrile produces nicotinamide for animal feed.
– Worldwide, 31,000 tons of nicotinamide were sold in 2014.
– Used in the pharmaceutical industry, biocatalysis, and green chemistry.
– Essential for various industrial processes and the synthesis of compounds.

**Biochemistry and Health Effects**:
– Part of the vitamin B complex, essential for life in NADH and NAD.
– Acts as an electron carrier in metabolic reactions and can be methylated in the liver.
– NADH releases energy in oxidation reactions and plays a crucial role in oxidation-reduction reactions.

**Research, Studies, and Dermatological Applications**:
– Studies on inflammatory cytokine responses in acne and skin conditions.
– Investigated for its role in NAD+ metabolism and safety for skin health.
– Used in dermatology for aging facial skin appearance, epidermal permeability barrier enhancement, and reducing facial sebum production.
– Potential in treating psoriasis, eczema, and as an anti-inflammatory agent for skin health.

Nicotinamide (Wikipedia)

Niacinamide or nicotinamide is a form of vitamin B3 found in food and used as a dietary supplement and medication. As a supplement, it is used by mouth to prevent and treat pellagra (niacin deficiency). While nicotinic acid (niacin) may be used for this purpose, niacinamide has the benefit of not causing skin flushing. As a cream, it is used to treat acne, and has been observed in clinical studies to improve the appearance of aging skin by reducing hyperpigmentation and redness. It is a water-soluble vitamin. Niacinamide is the supplement name, while nicotinamide is the scientific name.

Clinical data
Pronunciation/ˌnəˈsɪnəmd/, /ˌnɪkəˈtɪnəmd/
Other namesNAM, 3-pyridinecarboxamide
nicotinic acid amide
vitamin PP
nicotinic amide
vitamin B3
AHFS/Drugs.comConsumer Drug Information
License data
Routes of
By mouth, topical
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • pyridine-3-carboxamide
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.002.467 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass122.127 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
Density1.40 g/cm3 g/cm3
Melting point129.5 °C (265.1 °F)
Boiling point334 °C (633 °F)
  • c1cc(cnc1)C(=O)N
  • InChI=1S/C6H6N2O/c7-6(9)5-2-1-3-8-4-5/h1-4H,(H2,7,9)

Side effects are minimal. At high doses, liver problems may occur. Normal amounts are safe for use during pregnancy. Niacinamide is in the vitamin B family of medications, specifically the vitamin B3 complex. It is an amide of nicotinic acid. Foods that contain niacinamide include yeast, meat, milk, and green vegetables.

Niacinamide was discovered between 1935 and 1937. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. Niacinamide is available as a generic medication and over the counter. Commercially, niacinamide is made from either nicotinic acid (niacin) or nicotinonitrile. In some countries, grains have niacinamide added to them.

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