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**Historical Overview:**
– Montreal’s early history includes First Nations occupation, establishment of Hochelaga, and French exploration by Jacques Cartier.
– The city was founded as Ville-Marie in 1642 and experienced early European settlement under figures like Samuel de Champlain.
– Montreal saw economic shifts, political protests, and changes in capital status throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.
– Events like the American Occupation, World Wars, and the 1976 Summer Olympics shaped Montreal’s history.
– The city’s modern era as a municipality began in 1832, with significant growth, infrastructure developments, and mergers over time.

**Geography and Climate:**
– Montreal is situated in the southwest of Quebec, encompassing the Island of Montreal and positioned at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers.
– The city’s climate is classified as a warm-summer humid continental climate, with distinct seasons and average annual precipitation around 1,000mm.
– Montreal experiences warm, humid summers and cold, snowy winters, with temperatures ranging from below -10.5°C in winter to over 30°C in summer.
– Spring and fall bring mild weather but are subject to temperature fluctuations, and snowfall typically occurs from November to March.
– Montreal’s geographical location and climate play a significant role in shaping the city’s lifestyle and infrastructure.

**Cultural and Social Aspects:**
– Montreal has been a center of art, culture, commerce, and technology, hosting international conferences and events.
– The city faced social and political changes in the 1970s, including concerns for French language conservation and the impact of events like the October Crisis.
– Montreal’s neighborhoods and landmarks reflect its rich cultural heritage, with architectural marvels like Notre Dame Basilica and Habitat 67.
– The city’s diverse boroughs and neighborhoods offer unique experiences, from historic Old Montreal to creative hubs like The Plateau Mount Royal.
– Montreal’s designation as a UNESCO City of Design and its underground city (RÉSO) showcase its commitment to creativity and innovation.

**Economic Development and Infrastructure:**
– Montreal has undergone economic shifts, facing challenges like high unemployment during the Great Depression and slower growth compared to Toronto.
– The city’s economic revival in the 21st century is marked by infrastructure projects like the Réseau express métropolitain and Champlain Bridge.
– Significant developments include the construction of residential skyscrapers, super-hospitals, and subway line extensions, along with the gentrification of neighborhoods like Griffintown.
– Montreal’s economic landscape has been influenced by events like the Saint Lawrence Seaway opening in 1959 and the impact of the 1976 Summer Olympics.
– The city’s growth, events, and economic changes have shaped its modern identity as a vibrant and evolving urban center.

**Demographic and Environmental Data:**
– Montreal’s population exceeded one million by 1951, with various demographic shifts and mergers with surrounding municipalities over the years.
– Average snowfall and precipitation patterns in Montreal range from 0.0 to 82.5 inches of snowfall and 11.1 to 16.7 days of precipitation annually.
– Sunshine hours, UV index, and relative humidity levels vary throughout the year, impacting the city’s climate and lifestyle.
– Montreal’s historical mergers, including the 2002 merger and subsequent demergers, have influenced its administrative structure and relationships with neighboring areas.
– The city’s demographic, environmental, and administrative data provide insights into its dynamic growth, challenges, and resilience over time.

Montreal (Wikipedia)

Montreal (CA: /ˌmʌntriˈɔːl/ MUN-tree-AWL; French: Montréal [mɔ̃ʁeal] ) is the second most populous city in Canada, the tenth most populous city in North America, and the most populous city in the province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill around which the early city of Ville-Marie was built. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which obtained its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. The city is 196 km (122 mi) east of the national capital, Ottawa, and 258 km (160 mi) southwest of the provincial capital, Quebec City.

Montréal (French)
Ville de Montréal
Official logo of Montreal
Concordia Salus ("well-being through harmony")
Interactive map of Montreal
Montreal is located in Canada
Location within Canada
Montreal is located in Quebec
Location within Quebec
Coordinates: 45°30′32″N 73°33′15″W / 45.50889°N 73.55417°W / 45.50889; -73.55417
Urban agglomerationMontreal
FoundedMay 17, 1642
ConstitutedJanuary 1, 2002
Named forMount Royal
 • TypeMontreal City Council
 • MayorValérie Plante
 • Federal riding
 • Provincial riding
 • MPs
 • City431.50 km2 (166.60 sq mi)
 • Land365.13 km2 (140.98 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,293.99 km2 (499.61 sq mi)
 • Metro
4,604.26 km2 (1,777.71 sq mi)
Highest elevation
233 m (764 ft)
Lowest elevation
6 m (20 ft)
 • City1,762,949 (2nd)
 • Density4,828.3/km2 (12,505/sq mi)
 • Metro
4,291,732 (2nd)
 • Metro density919/km2 (2,380/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
Postal codes
  • H1A, H1C-H3N, H3S-H3W, H4A-H4T, H4Z-H5B, H8R-H8Z, H9C-H9E, H9H, H9K
Area code(s)514 and 438 and 263
GDP (Montreal CMA)C$221.9 billion (2018)
GDP per capita (Montreal CMA)C$48,289 (2022) Edit this at Wikidata

As of 2021, the city has a population of 1,762,949, and a metropolitan population of 4,291,732, making it the second-largest city, and second-largest metropolitan area in Canada. French is the city's official language. In 2021, 85.7% of the population of the city of Montreal considered themselves fluent in French while 90.2% could speak it in the metropolitan area. Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with 58.5% of the population able to speak both English and French.

Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s. Montreal remains an important centre of art, culture, literature, film and television, music, commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, and world affairs. Montreal is the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, and was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, although it slipped to rank 40 in the 2021 index, primarily due to stress on the healthcare system from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is regularly ranked as a top ten city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.

Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics. It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as a global city. The city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One; the Montreal International Jazz Festival, the largest jazz festival in the world; the Just for Laughs festival, the largest comedy festival in the world; and Les Francos de Montréal, the largest French-language music festival in the world. In sports, it is home to the Montreal Canadiens of the National Hockey League, who have won the Stanley Cup more times than any other team.

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