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Evergreen species:
– Most conifers are evergreen, such as pine, hemlock, spruce, and fir.
– Japanese umbrella pine is a unique evergreen species in its own family.
– Evergreens maintain their leaves throughout the year.
– They provide continuous coverage and color in landscapes.
– Evergreen plants can photosynthesize during winter months.

Differences between evergreen and deciduous species:
– Broad-leaved evergreens have thicker leaves than deciduous species.
– Evergreens have a larger leaf biomass per unit leaf area.
– Evergreens have a lower rate of photosynthesis compared to deciduous species.
– Evergreens have a larger fraction of total plant biomass present as leaves.
– Construction costs do not differ between evergreen and deciduous species.

Reasons for being evergreen or deciduous:
– Deciduous trees shed leaves as an adaptation to cold or dry seasons.
– Tropical rainforest plants are mostly evergreen, replacing leaves gradually.
– Evergreens in cold climates reinforce their survival through unique adaptations.
– Evergreens in nutrient-poor areas have hard leaves and excellent water economy.
– Evergreens have higher carbon-nitrogen ratios in leaf litter, affecting soil acidity.

See also:
– Evergreen plants provide shelter for smaller plants.
– Evergreen trees contribute to soil acidity and lower soil nitrogen content.
– Mediterranean evergreen seedlings have unique resources for fast growth.
– Fewer plants are evergreen in cool temperate climates.
– Conifers dominate in areas with severe cold due to their adaptability.

– Longevity of needle fascicles varies among North American pines.
– Anatomical analysis of leaf mass per area in woody species.
– Biomass distribution changes with plant size and species.
– Resource partitioning between evergreen and deciduous species in tropical dry forests.
– Fast growth in Mediterranean evergreen trees depends on stored resources.

Evergreen (Wikipedia)

In botany, an evergreen is a plant which has foliage that remains green and functional throughout the year. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which lose their foliage completely during the winter or dry season.

A silver fir shoot showing three successive years of retained leaves.
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