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Columbia University

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**History and Evolution**:
– Discussions on founding a college in New York began in 1704.
– Act in 1746 raised funds for the college.
– Classes started in 1754 with Samuel Johnson as the first president.
– Officially founded as Kings College in 1754 by royal charter.
– Renamed Columbia College in 1784 after the American Revolution.
– Medical school merged with The College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1813.
– College moved to Gothic Revival campus in 1857.
– Barnard College was established in 1889 for women.
– Campus relocated to Morningside Heights in 1896.
– Columbia became a major research institution under Nicholas Murray Butler.

**Notable Achievements**:
– Oldest institution of higher education in New York.
– Produced 103 Nobel laureates and 125 National Academy of Sciences members.
– Administers and awards the Pulitzer Prize annually.
– Played a pivotal role in scientific breakthroughs like brain-computer interface and nuclear fission.
– Alumni include seven Founding Fathers of the U.S., four U.S. presidents, and 125 Pulitzer Prize recipients.

**Academic Structure and Campus Life**:
– Organized into twenty schools, including four undergraduate schools and 16 graduate schools.
– Research efforts include the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory and Goddard Institute for Space Studies.
– Located in New York City with a 299-acre campus.
– Newspaper: Columbia Daily Spectator.
– Colors: Columbia blue and white.
– Nickname: Lions.
– Sporting affiliations: NCAA Division I FCS – Ivy League, EARC, IRA, EAWRC.

**Campus and Facilities**:
– Most studies conducted in Morningside Heights.
– Campus designed by McKim, Mead & White.
– Butler Library is the largest library on campus, with over 15.0 million volumes.
– College Walk is a prominent feature.
– University owns over 7,800 apartments in the area.
– Several campus buildings are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

**Research, Affiliations, and Sustainability**:
– Havemeyer Hall, a National Historic Chemical Landmark.
– Classified among R1: Doctoral Universities with very high research activity.
– Affiliated with NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and other medical institutions.
– Office of Environmental Stewardship established in 2006.
– Columbia is a 2030 Challenge Partner to reduce greenhouse emissions by 30%.
– Adopts LEED standards for new construction and renovations.

Columbia University, officially Columbia University in the City of New York, is a private Ivy League research university in New York City, United States. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, it is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest in the United States.

Columbia University
Latin: Universitas Columbiae
Former names
King's College
Columbia College
MottoIn lumine Tuo videbimus lumen (Latin)
Motto in English
"In Thy light shall we see light"
TypePrivate research university
EstablishedMay 25, 1754; 269 years ago (1754-05-25)
Academic affiliations
Endowment$13.3 billion (2022)
Budget$5.9 billion (2023)
PresidentMinouche Shafik
ProvostAngela Olinto
Academic staff
Students34,782 (Fall 2022)
Undergraduates6,668 (Fall 2022)
Postgraduates25,880 (Fall 2022)
Location, ,
United States

40°48′27″N 73°57′43″W / 40.80750°N 73.96194°W / 40.80750; -73.96194
CampusLarge city, 299 acres (1.21 km2)
NewspaperColumbia Daily Spectator
ColorsColumbia blue and white
Sporting affiliations
MascotRoar-ee the Lion

Columbia was established as a colonial college by royal charter under George II of Great Britain. It was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolution, and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University.

Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including four undergraduate schools and 16 graduate schools. The university's research efforts include the Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory, the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, and accelerator laboratories with Big Tech firms such as Amazon and IBM. Columbia is a founding member of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the MD degree. The university also administers and annually awards the Pulitzer Prize.

Columbia scientists and scholars have played a pivotal role in scientific breakthroughs including brain-computer interface; the laser and maser; nuclear magnetic resonance; the first nuclear pile; the first nuclear fission reaction in the Americas; the first evidence for plate tectonics and continental drift; and much of the initial research and planning for the Manhattan Project during World War II.

As of December 2021, its alumni, faculty, and staff have included seven of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America; four U.S. presidents; 34 foreign heads of state or government; two secretaries-general of the United Nations; ten justices of the United States Supreme Court; 103 Nobel laureates; 125 National Academy of Sciences members; 53 living billionaires; 23 Olympic medalists; 33 Academy Award winners; and 125 Pulitzer Prize recipients.

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