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Arabian Peninsula

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**1. Geography and Climate of the Arabian Peninsula:**

– Located in Western Asia, bordered by the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, and Gulf of Aden.
– Mostly desert with mountain ranges in the southwest, experiencing extreme temperatures.
– Landscape includes deserts, mountains, coastal plains, prone to dust storms and occasional rainfall.
– Drainage by ephemeral watercourses called wadis, with ancient aquifers beneath the peninsula.
– Home to desert-adapted wildlife and unique marine life in coastal waters.

**2. Biodiversity in the Arabian Peninsula:**

– Diverse flora and fauna adapted to arid conditions, including Arabian leopards and oryx.
– Native plant species like date palms, acacia trees, and desert shrubs.
– Conservation efforts in place to protect endangered species.
– Unique marine life in coastal waters of the peninsula.
– Rich biodiversity reflecting the region’s arid climate and unique ecosystems.

**3. History and Archaeology of the Arabian Peninsula:**

– Rich history dating back to ancient civilizations.
– Archaeological sites like Petra in Jordan showcase the region’s heritage.
– Prehistoric human migrations out of Africa passed through the peninsula.
– Stone tools and fossils provide insights into early human presence.
– Rise of Islam in the 7th century had a significant impact on the region.

**4. Economic Significance of the Arabian Peninsula:**

– Major producer of oil and natural gas, with the world’s largest reserves of oil.
– Oil reserves transformed the economy and infrastructure of Arabian countries.
– Oil industry led to rapid modernization and development in the region.
– Unsuitability of most areas for agriculture, with coastal plains and oases used for cultivation.
– Known for rich oil production, Arabian Aquifer System is the most overstressed aquifer system in the world.

**5. Political and Social Aspects of the Arabian Peninsula:**

– Political boundaries include Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Oman, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia.
– GCC countries include Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
– Rapid population growth driven by migrant labor and high birth rates.
– Skewed gender ratio favoring males, with significant South Asian populations.
– Historical conflicts and alliances shaping the political landscape of the region.

Arabian Peninsula (Wikipedia)

The Arabian Peninsula (/əˈrbiən .../; Arabic: شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَة الْعَرَبِيَّة, shibhu l-jazīra l-ʿarabiyya, "Arabian Peninsula" or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, jazīratu l-ʿarab, "Island of the Arabs"), or Arabia, is a peninsula in West Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At 3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi), the Arabian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in the world.

Arabian Peninsula
ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة (Arabic)
شِبْه ٱلْجَزِيرَة ٱلْعَرَبِيَّة (Arabic)
Area3,237,500 km2 (1,250,000 sq mi)
Population93,900,000 (2023 estimate )
Population density29.0/km2
HDI0.788 (2018)
DemonymArab, Arabian
Largest cities
Satellite view of the Arabian Peninsula

Geographically, the Arabian Peninsula includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen, as well as southern Iraq and Jordan. The largest of these is Saudi Arabia. In the classical era, the Sinai Peninsula was also considered a part of Arabia.

The Arabian Peninsula formed as a result of the rifting of the Red Sea between 56 and 23 million years ago, and is bordered by the Red Sea to the west and southwest, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the northeast, the Levant and Mesopotamia to the north and the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean to the southeast. The peninsula plays a critical geopolitical role in the Arab world and globally due to its vast reserves of oil and natural gas.

Before the modern era, the region was divided into primarily four distinct regions: the Central Plateau (Najd and Al-Yamama), South Arabia (Yemen, Hadhramaut and Oman), Al-Bahrain (Eastern Arabia or Al-Hassa), and the Hejaz (Tihamah for the western coast), as described by Ibn al-Faqih.

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