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**1. Underwriting Origins and Historical Context:**
– Originated from the Lloyds of London insurance market.
– Financial backers accepted risk on ventures for a premium.
– Underwriters historically guaranteed payment in case of loss.
– Initially involved sea voyages with risks like shipwrecks.

**2. Securities Underwriting Process:**
– Investment banks raise capital for corporations and governments.
– Underwriters guarantee a price for securities and sell them to the public.
– Common in initial public offerings (IPOs).
– Underwriters profit from the underwriting spread.
– Provide services like advice on issuance and document filing.

**3. Risk Assessment and Exclusivity in Underwriting:**
– Underwriters bear the risk of selling securities.
– Exclusivity agreements may be made between underwriters and issuers.
– Underwriters sometimes price securities below market value.
– Issuers receive cash upfront and access to sales channels.
– Underwriters make a profit from the markup and exclusive sales agreements.

**4. Underwriting in Banking and Insurance:**
– Banking underwriting involves credit analysis for loans.
– Consumer and commercial underwriting evaluates financial information.
– Insurance underwriters assess risk and determine premiums.
– Use actuarial tables, underwriting software, and intuition.
– Machine learning transforming traditional banking underwriting.

**5. Various Forms and Applications of Underwriting:**
– Continuous underwriting evaluates risks ongoingly.
– Real estate underwriting assesses real estate investments.
– Types of underwriting include medical, automated, and reinsurance.
– Other forms include forensic, sponsorship, and public broadcasting underwriting.
– Underwriting critical in financial operations like IPOs and life insurance.

Underwriting (Wikipedia)

Underwriting (UW) services are provided by some large financial institutions, such as banks, insurance companies and investment houses, whereby they guarantee payment in case of damage or financial loss and accept the financial risk for liability arising from such guarantee. An underwriting arrangement may be created in a number of situations including insurance, issues of security in a public offering, and bank lending, among others. The person or institution that agrees to sell a minimum number of securities of the company for commission is called the underwriter.

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