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Sugar industry of the Philippines

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**Historical Development of the Sugar Industry in the Philippines:**
Sugarcane cultivation dates back to pre-Spanish colonization
Sugarcane was a major crop for Austronesian peoples
Sugarcane farming became an industry after 1856
– Establishment of the Philippine Sugar Administration in 1937
– Crisis in the 1970s due to market factors

**Trade Relations and Market Dynamics:**
– Free trade with the United States since 1913
– Quota system on sugar enforced by the U.S. until the early 1970s
– Market cooperation between Filipinos and Americans
– Protection of the Philippine sugar market
– Decline in sugar exports to the U.S. after quota law expiration

**Challenges, Modernization Efforts, and Government Intervention:**
– Challenges faced by the sugar industry due to market fluctuations
– Efforts to modernize and stabilize the industry
– Establishment of PHILSUCOM and Republic Planters Bank in the 1970s
– Establishment of the Sugar Regulatory Administration post-1986 Revolution
– Economic impact on the Philippine economy and workforce

**Sugar Production and Distribution:**
– Philippines ranked 9th globally in sugar production in 2005
– Negros Island accounted for half of the nation’s sugar production
– Operational sugar mills in various regions of the Philippines
Sugarcane cultivation details and harvest season
– Plans to include Industrial Sugar Central Sites in UNESCO World Heritage List

**Industry Developments and Future Outlook:**
– Recent developments such as closures of sugar refineries
– Impact of Martial Law on the sugar industry
– Master Plan for the Philippine Sugar Industry
– International engagements like CRC’s International Food and Agribusiness Investor Roadshow
– Links to external resources for further information

As of 2005, the Philippines was the ninth largest sugar producer in the world and second largest sugar producer among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, after Thailand, according to Food and Agriculture Organization. At least seventeen provinces of the Philippines have grown sugarcane, of which the two on Negros Island account for half of the nation's total production, and sugar is one of the Philippines' most important agricultural exports. As of crop year 2009–2010, 29 sugar mills are operational divided as follows: thirteen mills on Negros, six mills on Luzon, four mills on Panay, three mills in Eastern Visayas and three mills on Mindanao.

Sugarcane fields at the base of Mount Kanlaon in Negros Island

Sugarcane is not a sensitive crop and can be grown in almost all types of soil, from sandy to clay loams and from acidic volcanic soils to calcareous sedimentary deposits. The harvest period is from October to December and ends in May.

In 2015, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines announced that they will include the Industrial Sugar Central Sites of the Philippines and related properties to the UNESCO World Heritage List.

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