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Sorghum – Wikipedia

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**History and Taxonomy**:
– Sorghum was domesticated over 5,000 years ago in present-day Sudan.
– Archaeological evidence near Kassala dates back to 3500-3000 BC.
– It was a staple food of the kingdom of Alodia.
– Sorghum belongs to the grass family, Poaceae, subfamily Panicoideae, tribe Andropogoneae.
– It shares its tribe with maize, big bluestem, and sugarcane.
– Major sorghum producers in 2021 include the US, India, Ethiopia, Mexico, and Argentina.

**Genetics and Genomics**:
– Agrobacterium transformation is used in sorghum.
– A 2013 study developed an SNP array for breeding.

**Distribution, Habitat, and Production**:
– 17 out of 25 sorghum species are native to Australia, with a range extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands.
– Global sorghum production in 2021 was 61 million tonnes, with top producers being the US, India, Ethiopia, and Mexico.
– Sorghum provides essential nutrients like carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, and minerals per 100g.

**Nutrition and Health**:
– Sorghum is a source of cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate.
– It contains phenols and antioxidants, with dietary polyphenols showing bioactivity.
– The United States FDA sets Daily Values for Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels, and the National Academies published Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium in 2019.

**Cultivation, Production, and Market Trends**:
– Sorghum has high water- and nitrogen-use efficiency and is a resilient crop that can adapt to climate change.
– China’s interest in Brazilian corn has impacted U.S. sorghum exports, affecting market trends.
– Recent developments in China’s purchases of U.S. sorghum have influenced global trade.
– The LA Times reported on China’s recent purchases of U.S. sorghum.
– U.S. sorghum prices rallied with China’s return to the market in 2020 but have since faced challenges due to changing demands and tariffs.

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