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Reciprocity Treaty of 1875

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Sugar planters in Hawaii faced economic challenges due to US import taxes on their products.
– Previous attempts at a free trade agreement with the US had failed.
– Concerns among Hawaiians about potential US annexation.
– San Francisco sugar refineries lobbied for protection of their interests.
– Kalākaua’s election platform included opposition to ceding sovereign land.

– Kalākaua led a Reciprocity Commission to the US for negotiations.
– Treaty signed on January 30, 1875, and ratified by both parties in 1875.
– Allowed tax-free entry of Hawaiian sugar and rice into the US.
– First sugar shipment under the treaty arrived in San Francisco in September 1876.
– Signers included Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and President Ulysses S. Grant.

– US concerns about treaty favoring Hawaiian planters and San Francisco refiners.
– United States Tariff Act of 1883 left Hawaii at a disadvantage.
– Agreement reached in 1884 for treaty extension.
– Exclusive use of Pearl Harbor granted to the US under the extension.
– Treaty extended for an additional 7 years in 1887.

– Treaty led to a boom in new sugar plantations in Hawaii.
– Claus Spreckels became a major investor in Hawaii’s sugar industry.
– Significant increase in Hawaii’s income and sugar production during Kalākaua’s reign.
– Spreckels claimed a monopoly on Hawaiian sugar production by 1882.
– Treaty had a major effect on Hawaii’s economy and trade relations.

**See also:**
– Hawaiian Kingdom—United States relations.
– Honolulu Courthouse Riot.
– Early History of Pearl Harbor.
– Entry into force.
– List of bilateral treaties signed by the Kingdom of Hawaii.

The Treaty of Reciprocity between the United States of America and the Hawaiian Kingdom (Hawaiian: Kuʻikahi Pānaʻi Like) was a free trade agreement signed and ratified in 1875 that is generally known as the Reciprocity Treaty of 1875.

King Kalākaua and members of the Reciprocity Commission: John Owen Dominis, Governor of Oahu; Henry A. Peirce, the presiding U.S. Commissioner to Hawaii; King Kalākaua; Henry W. Severance, the Hawaiian Consul in San Francisco, and John M. Kapena, Governor of Maui.

The treaty gave free access to the United States market for sugar and other products grown in the Kingdom of Hawaii starting in September 1876. In return, the US received a guarantee that Hawaii would not cede or lease any of its lands to other foreign powers. The treaty led to large investment by Americans in sugarcane plantations in Hawaii.

In a later extension of the treaty, the United States negotiated for exclusive use of lands in the area known as Puʻu Loa, which were later used for the Pearl Harbor naval base.

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