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Coffea – Wikipedia

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**1. Cultivation and Use of Coffea:**
– Coffea comprises over 120 species, with Arabica and Robusta being the most popular.
– Arabica is known for its sweet taste, while Robusta has higher caffeine content.
Coffee plants thrive at high elevations in tropical regions, producing coffee cherries with two seeds (coffee beans) containing caffeine.
Caffeine in coffee beans acts as a natural defense mechanism for the plant.

**2. Research on Coffea:**
– Ongoing discoveries of new Coffea species, with advancements like the 2014 publication of the coffee genome revealing caffeine production genes.
– DNA fingerprinting for genetic authentication of coffee plants, potentially enhancing production and traceability.
– Phylogenetic studies showing Coffea’s ancestral origins in Africa or Asia.

**3. Coffea Species Diversity:**
– Coffea encompasses various species like Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, and newer finds such as Coffea charrieriana.
– Expansion of the Coffea genus to 124 species due to similarities with Psilanthus.
– Native distributions of Coffea species in tropical Asia and Australasia.

**4. Impact of Climate Change on Coffea:**
– Vulnerability of coffee species like Arabica and Robusta to shifting growing zones due to climate change.
– Potential decline in coffee production in key regions due to changing growing conditions.
– Necessity for adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change effects on coffee cultivation.

**5. Economic Significance of Coffea:**
Coffee ranks among the world’s most valuable and traded commodity crops.
– Arabica and Robusta are major contributors to global coffee production.
– Reliance of several countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Africa on coffee exports.
– Influence of economic factors, market demands, and climate change on the global coffee market.

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