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**Etymology and Naming:**
– Wang Dayuan, Portuguese sailors, and the Dutch gave different names to Taiwan.
– The modern name Taiwan is derived from historical usages.
– The current Chinese name for the island was established in 1684.
– The country is officially known as the Republic of China.
– The term “China” has historical roots in the name of the republic.

**Geography and Climate:**
– Taiwan is located in East Asia and surrounded by the East and South China Seas.
– The main island has an area of 35,808 square kilometers.
– The climate varies from marine tropical to subtropical and tropical.
– Taiwan is susceptible to typhoons and earthquakes due to tectonic activity.
– The island’s climate is classified under the Köppen system.

**Historical Overview:**
– Human settlement on Taiwan dates back at least 25,000 years.
– Large-scale Han Chinese immigration began in the 17th century.
– Taiwan was annexed by the Qing dynasty in 1683 and later ceded to Japan in 1895.
– The Republic of China took control in 1945 after Japan’s surrender.
– Taiwan experienced rapid economic growth in the late 20th century.

**Political Status and History:**
– Taiwan’s political status is contentious, with claims from both the ROC and the PRC.
– The ROC no longer represents China in the UN but maintains its claim as the legitimate representative.
– Taiwan has official diplomatic relations with a limited number of UN member states.
– Taiwan underwent political and social reforms from the late 1970s to the 1990s.
– Democratization efforts were significant under leaders like Chiang Ching-kuo and Lee Teng-hui.

**Colonial Periods and Rule:**
– Taiwan saw various colonial periods, including Dutch, Spanish, Qing, and Japanese rule.
– The Qing dynasty annexed Taiwan in 1684, with subsequent developments in governance and migration.
– Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 after the First Sino-Japanese War.
– The Republic of China took over in 1945, leading to economic growth and industrialization.
– The period under Japanese rule was marked by industrialization efforts and assimilation policies.

Taiwan (Wikipedia)

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It is located at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 square miles). The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 square miles), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanized population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries.

Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
25°04′N 121°31′E / 25.067°N 121.517°E / 25.067; 121.517
Largest cityNew Taipei City
Official languagesStandard Chinese
Official scriptTraditional Chinese
National languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Tsai Ing-wen
Lai Ching-te
Chen Chien-jen
Han Kuo-yu
Hsu Tzong-li
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
• Republic of China established
10 October 1911
25 October 1945
7 December 1949
• Total
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)
• 1 July 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 23,894,394 (56th)
• 2010 census
• Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (17th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.685 trillion (20th)
• Per capita
Increase $72,485 (15th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Decrease $751.930 billion (21st)
• Per capita
Decrease $32,339 (30th)
Gini (2017)Negative increase 34.1
HDI (2021)Increase 0.926
very high (19th)
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet, .台灣, .台湾

Taiwan has been settled for at least 25,000 years. Ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese immigration began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning, the first predominantly Han Chinese state in Taiwanese history. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1912, took control following the surrender of Japan in 1945. Japan renounced sovereignty over Taiwan in 1952. The immediate resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the loss of the Chinese mainland to Communist forces, who established the People's Republic of China, and the flight of the ROC central government to Taiwan in 1949. The effective jurisdiction of the ROC has since been limited to Taiwan, Penghu, and smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party state under martial law to a multi-party democracy, with democratically elected presidents since 1996. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the 20th-largest by PPP measures, with a focus on steel, machinery, electronics, and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country. It is ranked highly in terms of civil liberties, healthcare, and human development.

The political status of Taiwan is contentious. The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead. The ROC maintained its claim of being the sole legitimate representative of China and its territory until 1991, when it ceased to regard the CCP as a rebellious group and recognized its control over mainland China. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses to establish diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 11 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See. Many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organizations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate on a non-state basis. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favoring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity, contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity; into the 21st century, both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.

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